- 1942 - 1944 The M. W. Kellogg Co.
Process development engineer in air fractionation plant design, absorption, distillation,
and correlation of physical properties of hydrocarbons and industrial chemicals
- 1944 - 1946 The Kellex Corp.
Special Engr. detachment U.S. Army Corps of Engr's (UCCC Oak Ridge, TN) Analysis
of diffusion cascade, power freq's., stage plugging, inleakage, etc., comp. design
& prop's of UF6
- 1946 - 1953 Hydrocarbon Research Inc.
Process Engr. on NH3 plant designs, cat. poly., Socony Vac. TCC, Coal
Gasif., H-Oil & H-Iron, C2H4 & C3H6
plants, etc. Development of tray designs, flat plate heat exchangers, riser reactors,
seal leg design, new fluidized bed concepts, etc.
- 1953 - 1956 The M. W. Kellogg Co.
Development Engr. on fundamental studies in fluidization, entrainment, cyclone design,
dipleg sizing, flared hole trays, light hydrocarbon separation equipment
- 1956 - 1962 Associated Nucleonics - Stone & Webster Engr'g. Co.
Mgr. Proc. Dept. & Staff Consultant, Proj. Mgr. Hvy. water sepn. plant, Chem. Warfare
Service plant, LNG storage facilities, several nuclear power plants and isotope
Domestic and Foreign Clients Served since 1962
- 1962 - date
Petroleum (FCC, H-oil, Platforming, etc.)
Amer. Petr. lnst.
B.P. Oil Corp.
Chevron Res. & Dev.
Cities Service Oil
Energy Coop, Inc.
Exxon Res. & Engr'g.
Gulf Oil Corp.
Hydrocarbon Res. Inc.
M. W. Kellogg, Co.
Kerr - McGee
Mobil Oil Corp.
Std. Oil of Ohio
Stone & Webster
Texaco Dev. Corp.
Texas City Refining
(elf Aquitane, France)
(lmperial Ltd., Canada)
(Petro Canada, Montreal)
(E.I.L. New Delhi, India)
TiO2, PVC, PE, ACN, Melamine, Urea, NH3, Specialty Chems.
J.E. Baker Co.
Celanese Chem. Co.
Chem Cat Corp.
duPont de Nemours
GTE - Sylvania
Intn'l Flav's. & Frag.
Min Proc Engr's.
Mobil Chem. Co.
Nepera Chem. Corp.
New Jersey Zinc
Olim Chemical Co.
Pittsurgh Plate Glass
Poly Plant Project, Inc.
Proctor & Gamble
Q.O. Chemicals (Gt. Lakes)
Reilly Tar & Chem.
Royce Chemical Co.
Union Carbide Corp.
Urea Technology, Inc
Virginia Chems. Inc.
Wilco Chem. Co.
(BP Chimie, Lavera, France)
(European Vinyls, London)
(Gov't. of Israel, Jerusalem)
(Lonza, Milan, Italy)
(Neste Oy, Finland)
(Pechiney St. Gobain, France)
(Rhone-Poulenc, Lyon, France)
(Rhom, Darmstadt, Germany)
(Solvay, Brussels, Belgium)
(Snamprogetti, Milan, Italy)
Iron, Al, Tn, Mb, etc
Exxon Res. & Engr'g.
Hart Metals, Inc.
Kaiser Alum. & Chem.
Natl. Beryllia Corp.
(Alcan, Arvida, Canada)
(FIOR de Venezuela)
(Met. Y. Chim. Mexico)
(VAI, Linz, Austria)
Innov. Energy Global
Coal, Coke, Wood, Shale, Heat Recovery, Incineration
ABB Combustion Engr'g
Aerojet Energy Conv. Corp.
Allied Chem. Corp.
Argonne Nat'l Labs
Babcock & Wilcox
Battelle - Columbus
Bechtel - America
Bituminous Coal Res., Inc.
Brown & Root
Cogas Dev. Corp.
Dorr - Oliver
Energy Resources Corp.
Foster - Miller Associates
Foster - Wheeler
Hooker Chem Co.
Hydrocarbon Res. Inc.
Inst. of Gas Technology
Rohm & Haas
Marquess & Nell
Midwest Res. Inst.
Occidental Chem. Co.
Thermo Electron Corp.
Tosco Vistron Corp.
U.S. DOE (METC)
(lnternat'l. Energy Agcy., England)
(Midland Tar Distillers, England)
Trona, Cement, Silica, Silanes, Oxygen, H2SO4, etc.
Air Products & Chem's.
Allied Chem. Corp.
Amer. Messer Corp.
Armour Res. Foundation
Borden Chemical Co.
Burns & Roe
Chem. & Indust. Corp.
Church & Dwight
Dow Chemical Co.
Foote Mineral, Inc.
General Electric, Co.
Hoechst - Uhde Corp.
Process Plants Corp.
Texas Gulf, Inc.
Food & Pharmaceuticals
Mid America Dairymen
(Niro Atomizer, Denmark)
The Edwards Law Firm
Cravath, Swain & Moore
Folger &. Levin
Frost & Jacobs
Latham & Watkins
(Parlee McLaws, Edmonton)
Lucas & Just
Shearman & Sterling
Sprung, Horn, Kramer & Woods
Mat'l Hdlg., Vendors, Filtr,. etc
Combustion Equip. Corp.
The Ducon Co
E. G. & G. Idaho
Electric Power Res. Inst.
Environmental Res. & Engr'g.
Ind. Gas Clng. Inst.
Ludwig Cons. Engr's.
Northern Natural Gas
Oak Ridge Natl. Labs.
2,897,619 Snowfall Simulating Apparatus
3,139,069 Evaporating Apparatus
3,179,378 Apparatus for Mixing and Transporting Finely Divided Solids
3,410,055 Expandable Bed Filter and Method
3,606,946 Machined Components from Shavings by Ebullition
3,698,874 Dust Control Apparatus for Fluidized Bed Reactors
3,770,388 Granular Bed Reactor
3,800,508 Restrained Bed Filter-Reactor
3,826,738 Folded Transfer Line Reactor
3,912,466 Granular Media Filters
4,067,704 Granular Bed Filter
4,072,130 Apparatus and Method for Generating Steam
4,140,497 Screenless Granular Bed Filter
4,155,728 Screenless Granular Bed Filter
4,172,667 Method and Apparatus for Blending in a Fluidized Bed
4,260,298 Control of Solids Discharge from a Pressurized Vessel
4,947,803 Fluidized Bed Reactor Using Capped Dual-Sided Contact Units and Method
5,033,413 Fluidized Bed Combustiuon System and Method Utilizing Capped Dual-Sided
5,034,196 Particle Fractionator Employing Multiple Fluidized Bed Modules
5,368,824 Gas Distribution System for Fluidized Bed Reactors
5,656,243 Fluidized Bed Reactor and Process for Performing Reactions Therein
Books and Chapters therin
- "Fluidization", Chapter 3, Ed. by D.F Othmer, Reinhold, N.Y. 1956
- "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology", Chapter on "Absorbtion" in Vol.
I, 2nd Edition; Chapter on Fluidization in 1st Edition, Supplement Vol. I; Chapter
on "Fluidization" in 2nd Edition, Interscience, N.Y., 1957 - 1966; also 3rd Edition
- "Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Systems", Reinhold, N.Y., 1960
- "Modern Chemical Engineering", Chapter 6 on "Fluid-Solid Systems", Ed. by A. Acrivos,
- Editor of American Edition of "Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in Fluidized Beds",
by S.S. Zabrodsky of the Inst. of Heat & Mass Transfer, Minsk, USSR, pub. by Scripta-Technica,
Inc., N.Y. 1966
- "Fluidization and Related Processes", Chapter 3, pp.17-33, Pub’s & Info. Dir., New
Delhi, India 1966
- "Fluidization", Chapter 1, Ed. by J.F. Davidson and D. Harrison, Academic Press,
- "Research on Particulate Solids at PSRI", Section A.2, pp. 109-122 in Chem. Engr’g.
in a Changing World, Ed. by W.T. Koetsier, Elsevier Pub. Co. 1976
- "Design of Gas Absorption Towers", Section 3.2, pp.3-50 to 3-108 in Handbook of
Separation Techniques Ed. by P.A. Schweitzer, McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 1979
- "Cyclones", Chapter in the Encyclopedia of Chem. Processing and Design, Ed. by J.J.
McKetta and W.A. Cunningham, Marcel Dekker, N.Y., 1982
- "State-of-the-Art Review and Report on Critical Aspects and Scale-up Considerations
in the Design of Fluidized Bed Reactors", U.S.DOE NTIS Document DOE/MC/14141-1158(1982)
- "Rheology of Particulate Solids", pp. 623-634, Handbook of Fluids in Motion, Ed.
by N.P. Cheremisinoff and R.Gupta, Ann Arbor Science Publications, 1983
- "Fluidization Phenomena and Fluidized Bed Technology", pp 464-506; "Granular Bed
Filters", pp.770-792, Handbook of Powder Science and Technology, Ed. by M.E. Fayed
and L. Otten, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co. 1984
- "Pneumatic Conveyors", pp. 1111-1176, Materials Handling Handbook, 2nd Ed., Ed.
by R.A. Kulwiec, Wiley-Interscience, N.Y. 1985
- "Particulate Technology", Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Ed. by
J.J. McKetta and W.A. Cunningham, Marcel-Decker, Inc., Vol. 33, pp. 396-426, N.Y.
- "Cyclone Separators" Chapter 11, API Pub. No. 931, Volume on Atmospheric Emmisions
in Manual on Disposal of Ref. Wastes May 1975
- "P.S.R.I.", Particle Technology Research Review, Vol 1, pp. 149-152. March 1973
- "Cyclone Design", Chapter 12, pp.773-816, Fluidization, solids Handling and Processing,
Ed. by W.C. Yang, Noyes Pub., 1999
- Limiting Capacity of Damped Tower Packings, Trans. AIChE, 41, No.
6, 693-710 (1945)
- Mechanism of Countercurrent Gas-liquid Flow Through Packed Towers,
C.E.P., 43, No. 8, 415-428 (1947)
- Two-Phase Fluid-Solid Flow, Ind. Eng. Chem., 41, 2801-2806 (1949)
- Skirted Bubble Caps Provide Increased Bubbling Area, Chemical Processing,
13, 62, April 1950
- Screen Skirted Bubble Caps, Petroleum Refiner, 29, No.6, 103-105 (1950)
- What Goes on Inside Bubble Cap Towers, Chemical Engineering, 169-173,
- Volume of Liquid in Tilted Tanks and Drums, Chemical Processing, 156-158,
- Froth and Foam - The Bases for Tower Sizing, Petroleum Refiner, 32,
No. 1, 150-154 (1953)
- Visualizing Gas-Solid Dynamics in Catalytic Processes, Petroleum Refiner,
32, No.7, 123-128 (1953)
- What Every Engineer Should Know About Packed Tower Operations, Chemical
Engineering, 176-184, August 1953
- Calculate Capacities of Perforated Plates, Petroleum Refiner, 33,
No.2, 99-102 (1954)
- Industrial Mathematics, Petroleum Refiner, 33, No.3, 179-180 (1954)
- A Mathematical Approach to Mixing and Internal Particle Circulation,
Petroleum Refiner, 33, No.5, 203-204 (1954)
- Catalyst Team, Chemical Week, p.24, January 21, 1956
- Allowable Entrainment at Minimum Cost, Petroleum Refiner. 36, No.3,
- Tray Design Saves Space, Chemical Engineering, 63, No.3, 132-134 (1956)
- How Solid Catalysts Behave, Petroleum Refiner, 36, No.4, 173-178 (1957)
- Minimum Velocity for Catalyst Flow, Petroleum Refiner, 36, No.6, 133-142
- Nine Variables in Catalyst Flow, Petroleum Refiner, 36, No.7, 175-183,
- Find Best Particle Size Distribution, Petroleum Refiner, 36, No 5,
- Calculate Fluidization Rates, Petroleum Refiner, 36, No.8, 147-155
- Particle Size Affects Initial Fluidization, Petroleum Refiner, 36,
No.9, 305-308 (1957)
- How to Predict Gravity Flow Rates, Petroleum Refiner, 36, No.10, 162-170
- Contact Efficiency Influences Design, Petroleum Refiner, 36, No.11,
- Nuclear Engineering for Consultants, Consulting Engineer, 10, No.3,
- A Theoretical-Empirical Approach to the Mechanism of Particle Entrainment
from Fluidized Beds, AIChE Jnl., 4, No.4, 472-479 (1958)
- New Chart for Packed Tower Flooding, Petroleum Refiner, 40, No.2,
- Use Fluid Data for Solids Flow Rates, Petroleum Refiner, 41, No.2,
- Minimize Manifold Pressure Drop, Petroleum Refiner, 41, No.12, 125-130
- Flow of Fluid-Particle Suspensions from Liquid Fluidized Beds, I&EC
Fundamentals, No.2, No.3, 194-199 (1963)
- Petrochemicals Lure Investment Dollars, Petro/Chem Engineer, 36, No.1,
- Conveyability of Materials of Mixed Particle Size, I&EC Fundamentals,
3, No.4, 348-355 (1964)
- Determine Limits of Countercurrent Gas-Liquid Flow, H.P. & Petr. Ref.,
44, No.3, 121-126 (1965)
- Incipient Bubble Destruction and Particulate Fluidization, AIChE Jnl.,
11, No.3, 560-573, (1965)
- Non-Homogeneities in Solid-Liquid Fluidization, C.E.P., Symposium
Ser., 62, No. 67, 42-50 (1966)
- Report on 5 papers on Heat Transfer in Granular Beds, 3rd Internat'l
Heat transfer Conf., Vol. 6, (1966)
- Flowing Solids Displace Bubble Voids, Hydrocarbon Processing, 46,
No.4, 171-175 April (1967)
- Find Sieve Tray Weepage Rates, Hydrocarbon Processing, 46, No. 12,
138-140. December (1967)
- Bubble Formation and Grid Design, Proceedings of the Tripartite Chem.
Engr'g, Montreal, Sept. 25, 1968; Institution of Chem. Engr's. (London) Symposium
Series No. 20, pp. 136-139
- Gas Distribution and Grid Design, NPRA Question & Answer Session on
Refining Technology, p. 86, (1970)
- The Shallow Expandable Bed - A Versatile Processing Tool, AIChE Symp.
Ser. vol. 67, No. 116, 245-250 (1971)
- The Chemical Engineering Consultant; An Industrial Detective, The
School Science Review, Pub. by the Instn. of Chem. Engr's. (London), Part I, 52,
No. 181, pp. 772-781, June 1971; Part II, 53, No. 182, pp. 94-102, Sept. 1971; Pat
III, 53, NO. 183, pp. 284-292 December 1971
- Find Attrition in Fluid Beds, Hydrocarbon Processing, 50, 103-105,
- When are Fines in Equilibrium, Hydrocarbon Processing, 51, No.2, 104-106,
- The Evolution of Granular Beds for Gas Filtration and Absorption,
Brit. Chem. Engr?g. & Proc. Tech., 17, No.3, 224-227, March (1972)
- Designing Gas Absorption Towers, Chemical Engineering, pp. 121-138,
November 13 (1972)
- Granular Bed Filtration of an FCC Regenerator Effluent Stream, C.E.P.,
69, No. 5, pp. 67-71 June (1973)
- A Theoretical-Empirical Approach to Saltation Velocity in Cyclone Design,
AIChE Symp. Ser., No. 137, Vol. 70. 338-397 (1974)
- Help from Project EARL, Hydrocarbon Processing, 53, No.4, 119-124,
- Size Cyclone Diplegs Better, Hydrocarbon Processing, pp. 125-128,
- Particle Conveying in Extrusion Flow, Fluidization Technology, Vol.
II, pp. 151-158, Ed. by D.L. Keairns, Hemisphere Pub., Wash. (1976)
- Bulk Solids Efflux Capacity In Flooded and Streaming Gravity Flow,
ibid., pp. 239-252
- How Flow Phenomena Affect Design of Fluidized Beds, Chemical Engineering,
pp. 81-91, December 19, 1977
- The Fluid Dynamics of Bubbling Beds, The Fibonacci Quarterly, 16,
No.2, 171-183, April (1978)
- Studies of Attrition In Fluid-Particle Systems I, II, NSF Workshop,
Rensselaer Poly. Inst., Troy, N.Y. October 17-19, (1979)
- The Gravity Flow of Gases, Liquids and Bulk Solids, I&EC Fundamentals,
18, No.4, 345-348, (1979)
- Pressure Loss in Horizontal-to-Vertical Upflow Elbows, Pneumotransport
"5", BHRA, Cranfield, Bedford, England, January (1979)
- Studies of Attrition Rates in Fluid-Particle Systems via Free Fall,
Grid Jets and Cyclone Impact, Journal of Powder and Bulk Solids Technology, 4, Nos.
2/3, 12-20 (1980)
- Particle Entrainment from Bubbling Fluidized Beds, Fluidization, Ed.
by J. Grace and J. Matsen, Hennicker, N.H., August 1990
- Scale-Up Fluid Bed Reactors, Hydrocarbon Processing, 155-156, January
- Exploratory Investigations of Vortex Length and Cyclone Pressure Drop,
Hydrocarbon Processing, pp. 87-90, June 1983
- Particulate Solids - The 3rd Fluid Phase in Chemical Engineering,
Chemical Engineering, pp. 61-67, November 28, 1983
- Flow Phenomena in a 2-Dimensional Fluidized Bed, Powder Technology,
38, No. 2, 101-106, May/June 1984
- Riser Design Considerations Under Slug Flow Conditions, Powder Technology,
38, pp. 205-210 (1984)
- Pressure and Additive Effects on Flow of Bulk Solids, I.& E.C. Proc.
Des. & Dev., 3, 318-355, October 1964
- Evaluating Cyclone Efficiencies from Stream Compositions, Chemical
Engineering, pp. 69-73, April 30, 1984
- Conveyability and Powder Classification, Proceedings of the Annual
Powder & Bulk Solids Conf., pp. 396-407, pub. by Internat'l. Powder Inst., London,
May 15-17 1984
- Transport Process and Phase Equilibria in Particulate Solid Systems,
Proceedings of the CODATA Conf., Jerusalem, Israel, June 1984
- Standpipe Flow, Bubbling Aeration and Catalyst Characterization, pp.
1:1 to 1:17 in Proceedings of the 5th Annual Fluid Cat Cracking Symposium, Vienna,
Austria, pub. by Katalistiks, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, May 23-24 1984
- Pneumatic Conveying from Grains to Powders, pp. 63-81, Proceedings
of Pneumotec 2, Internat'l Conf. on Pneumatic Conveying Technology, Univ. of Kent,
Canterbury, England, September 4-6, 1984
- Maintaining Dense Phase Standpipe Downflow, Powder Technology, Vol.
47, No.2, 105-113, 1986
- The Particulate Nature of the Universe, Chem. Eng. Communications,
Vol. 62, pp. 123-133, 1987
- The Dual-Sided Multi-Riser AFBC Concept, Proceedings of the 10th Internat?l
Conf. on FBC, ASME, San Francisco, Vol.2, 1025-1030, May 3, 1989
- Supercritical Phase Behavior of Fluid-Particle Systems, 6th Internat'l.
Fluidization Conf., Banff, Alberta, Canada, pub. in Fluidization VI, pp. 121-128,
May 7-12, 1989
- FCC Cold Modeling Helps Solve FCC Standpipe Flow Problems, 6th Internat'l.
Fluidization Conf., ibid pp. 145-152
- The Saturation Dilute Phase Concentration of Matter, Chem. Engr?g.
Communications, 116, 89-96, 1992
- Solve All Column Flows with One Equation, C.E.P., 93-98, October 1992
- Air Lift Pumps and Two-Phase Upflow, C.E.P., 51-56, August 1993
- Correlating Throughput and Backmixing in Fluidized Beds, Hydrocarbon
Processing, 81-87, January 1995
- Optimize Performance of Fluidized Bed Reactors, C.E.P., 91, No. 4,
pp.32-36, April 1995
- The Flooding Equation for Gas-Solids Contacting, Proceedings of the
Ichea P-2 Conf., Florence, Italy, April 15, 1995
- A Universal Quantity, Chemtech, 26, No.9, pp. 19-22, September 1996
- Predicting the Degree of Particle Refluxing In Cocurrent Upflow Risers,
Powder Technology, Vol. 97/2, pp. 146-150, June 15, 1998
- Correlating Particle Critical Velocities, Powder Technology, Vol.
III, pp. 19-24 (2000)
- Developments in Elbow and Feedpoint Loss in Pneumatic Conveyors, Internat'l.
Jnl. Powder Handling & Processing, 12, No. 3, 247-252 (2000)
- Cyclone - Design Tips, Chemical Engineering. 60-64, January 2001
Specifically with respect to past and present involvement in scale-up:
In category 2. There are two that come immediately to mind; each had involved
investments in the order of 200 million dollars, with an estimated equal cost for
the necessary revisions. One involved a pair of 30’ diameter vessels in connection
with a new process for making furfural. The other was a new process for maleic anhydride.
In both cases the original scale ups and designs were out-sourced to major engineering
companies whose managements relied solely on their own in-house staff.
- Development of a scale up procedure based on fundamental experimentation and
research and 62 years of industrial experiences which is recorded in several Research
Papers to date proprietary to members of AIMS (e.g. duPont, Rhodia, Conoco-Phillips,
etc.). Some portions thereof have been published in various journals and in my 1989
- My predictions to clients that their scaled up reactor will not perform to the
design yield or conversion (based on 1. above). Instances in which the remedies
would be so costly that the processes were abandoned and the plants sold for scrap
or other possible uses.
- Feasible revisions to clients’ designs (as always based on 1. above) which resulted
in achievement of the desired performance in either conversion or capacity.
- Scale up from 1” to 4” pilots to reactors 20 feet and greater in inside diameter.
In category 3. I recall in particular 2 transfer, or “riser”, reactors in
petroleum cracking; a black liquor oxidation and carbon recovery process; a hydrogen
production unit currently under test; a terephthalic acid recovery unit; a formed
coke unit for a blast furnace; two iron carbide plants; an isobutane dehydrogenation
plant; a niacin reactor; a furfural production unit; etc.
In category 4. I recall two Trona ore “reactors” (sesquihydrate to monohydrate);
an ammoxidation reactor to produce acrylonitrile; another for oxychlorination of
ethylene to produce vinyl chloride monomer; gas phase polymerization of ethylene;
chlorination of rutile for food grade fumed silica; etc.
Specifically with regard to particle-gas separation:
I have designed equipment for separation of fine particles associated with fluidized
bed processes in petroleum cracking, coal combustion and gasification, fluid coking,
fumed silica production and a wide variety of petrochemical and mineral processing
plants. Clients and materials involved are listed in the accompanying resume.
I have designed cyclone systems installed in several major refineries and have for
decades conducted more research in cyclone design than all major vendors combined.
AIMS has carried the optimization of cyclone dimensional details for peak efficiency
into an ultimate science.
In connection with such as Westinghouse, The Ducon Co., the U.S. D.O.E., Mobil Chemical,
Exxon, Pall and Fuller Co.s I have designed granular bed filters, venturi scrubbers,
porous metal and bag filters. Much of this background is covered in Chapters 11
and 12 of my 1989 book and among patents listed in my resume.
Specifically with respect to the field of pneumatic conveying, F. A. Zenz has industrial
experience in design of pneumatic conveying systems in hundreds of installations
handling two-phase systems of gas-solids and gas-liquids. These systems have covered
- In the case of dry solids — with air, hydrogen, steam, and other gases
- Particulates consisting of sub-micron fumed silica; 1 to 2 micron pigments; avg.
17 micron Portland cement; 10 to 200 micron silica alumina catalyst carriers; several
thousand micron crushed limestone, crushed coals, iron ores and polyethylene pellets.
- Line Sizes ranging from 1/8th inch i.d. for nano materials and micro reactors, to
3” to 10” in-plant conveying lines, to 4 ft and 5 ft i.d. lines in petroleum processes
such as for example Fluid Catalytic Cracking units and Fluid Cokers
- Line Lengths varying from 100 to 800 feet in chemical plant handling
- In the case of liquids - with air, hydrogen, CO, nitrogen and assorted gases
- System conditions ranging in pressures from 15 to 3000 psig and up to 1500
- Liquids consisting of water, petroleum products and heavy oils in every physical
form of two-phase flow.
- Line sizes ranging from 5/8th inch to 10 inch i.d.
- Line lengths — 3000 to 40,000 feet
In every case pressure drops were calculated for several pipe sizes, at several
conveying rates and gas velocities to determine the optimum (minimum operating cost)
size, followed by design or at least specification of the feed system, as well as
design of the end separator as hydroclones, cyclones, filters etc.
AIMS, an acronym for Analogies In Matters of Science, incorporated in January 1989,
is a non-profit New York State corporation engaged in fundamental and innovative
applied research into all aspects of multiphase fluid dynamics, ranging from the
mechanics of material handling through phase contact and scale-up in chemical reactor
design. Through affiliation with the shops and laboratories of Pemm-Corp, AIMS offers
not only developing design thtory, but also fabrication and experimental testing
of existing and new technologies. Priorities in the subjects and directions to be
taken by AIMS are dictated by the membership and reported upon at semi-annual meetings
usually held at the Pemm-Corp facilities. AIMS’ technical director has over 60 years
experience in design, trouble shooting, and revamping of, for example, nearly every
fluidized bed process in the petroleum and petro-chemical industries; he has authored
two books and over 100 published papers. Since 1975 Pcmm-Corp has similarly served
as the facility for developing, testing and designing grids, baffles, cyclones and
ancillary equipment particularly in fluidized bed reactors for such as duPont, Exxon,
Texaco, Allied Chemical, Valero Petroleum, Chevron, Nucor, Phillips Petroleum, D.S.M.,
I.C.I., Great Lakes Chemical, Lummus-Lonza, Snamprogetti, etc., etc.
From the point of view of an academician; a research, design, or development engineer;
or a plant operator, a most significant result of AIMS’ research is reflected in
its title as deriving from Analogies. The correlants of much engineering design
data take the form of well recognized Reynolds numbers, friction factors, Nusselt
numbers, vapor pressures, etc. AIMS has experimentally demonstrated by analogies,
that in these correlants temperature in the case of molecules can be replaced with
velocity in the case of particles, molecular weight with particle size, melting
point with incipient fluidizing velocity, boiling point with terminal velocity,
vapor pressure with saturation concentration in the dilute phase, relative volatility
with relative elutriability, etc. Similarly directly replacing the properties of
liquids (the dense phase of molecules) with the properties of bulk powders (the
dense phase of particles) in the dimensionless equation for gravity flow was found
to correlate all regimes of two-phase cocurrent and countercurrent flows whether
in open, packed, or baffled conduits as well as reaction vessels in scale-up to
any dimensions. Along with recognizing and determining the angular shear plane in
liquids as directly equivalent to the more recognized angle of draw, angle of internal
friction, angle of nip, wedge of maximum thrust, etc., characteristic of bulk solids,
AIMS’ innovative approach reduces a host of empiricisms from divergent disciplines
into a common universal comprehension of the causative physical phenomena.
Availability of personnel and equipment, and hence breadth and pace of AIMS’ investigations
are substantially dependent on the financial support by member companies. Current
nominal dues are $7,000/year for a 5 year contract commitment. To date the technical
director has served without compensation; dues are used solely to fund experimental
work, reproduction of reports, and mailing costs; writing of reports and correlation
of data are carried out by the technical director.
A total of 79 proprietary reports referred to as Research Papers issued to date,
represent ~1100 pages of text and Figures replete with cited industrial experiences
and sample calculations, along with a subject index, issued periodically to all
On occasion, usually through cooperation with a member company, some aspect of AIMS’
work is submitted to a journal for publication. A sampling can be found in:
Powder Technology, Vol. 111, pp. 19-24, 2000
Powder Technology, pp. 146-150, June 1998
Hydrocarbon Processing, pp.81-87, January 1995
Chem. Engr’g. Progress, pp. 93-98, October 1992
You are most cordially invited to join and participate in AIMS’ continuing pursuit
of the fundamentals in the behavioral science of molecular and particulate matter
as it contributes to innovative engineering design in the process industries.
A membership contract is obtainable by letter or Fax (or e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org) to the attention of F. A. Zenz, President and Technical
Director at P.O. Box 49, Cold Spring, N.Y. 10516.
Ph 845 - 265 - 3066
Fax 845 - 265 - 2720
Frederick A. Zenz
Pres. and Tech. Dir.
Analogies In Matters of Science, Inc.
P0. Box 49
55 Moffet Road
Cold Spring, N.Y. 10516